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The Evolution of Security Studies: Bridging Theory and Practice




While the practice of security has a storied past, its formal academic study is relatively recent. This emerging discipline has faced several hurdles, notably a scarcity of dedicated researchers, a lack of academic interest, and a shortfall in advanced degrees focused on security, signalling a developmental lag within this critical field.


The discipline of security has been the subject of several magazines. Many issues critically assess the progress of security knowledge. Despite some optimism about future advancements, there is a consensus that the discipline has not significantly advanced over the past four decades. For instance, issues like insufficient funding, a lack of rigorous scientific research, and poor-quality data continue to hamper the field's development.


Several scholars, such as Giever and others, have pointed out these deficiencies, noting that while there is extensive criminological work on various victimologies, research focusing on offences within organisations remains scarce. This gap underscores a broader issue: the disconnect between academic research and practical application in the security field.


Historically, security studies have drawn heavily from criminology, and the likes of James Q. Wilson, however, much of criminology largely leans on sociology and law. However, the potential contributions from other disciplines like economics, history, intelligence studies, and particularly management and risk management, are only beginning to be recognised and utilised. This multidisciplinary approach is crucial for a comprehensive understanding of security in all its facets.


For example, in Australia, where security concerns span from urban centres to remote outposts, integrating economics, environmental science, and engineering into security studies leads to more effective strategies for managing risks associated with natural disasters and remote area crime.


On a practical level, the security industry's structure is disjointed and made up of numerous associations with frequently divergent goals. This fragmentation is symptomatic of a larger issue: the absence of a unified voice for a diverse set of activities within the security domain.


In response, professional associations have been pivotal in advancing training and standards. They play a critical role in pushing for professional recognition and in shaping training programs that elevate practice standards. In the Northern Territory of Australia, for instance, security professionals often contend with unique challenges that require specialised training—something that associations help to facilitate. ASIS has been instrumental in providing access to data, evidence and training which have been integrated into modern training programs. This has allowed security professionals to stay up-to-date on the latest trends and techniques in the industry.


In recent years, universities have begun to play a more significant role in the security field by offering postgraduate courses attended by seasoned professionals. These courses are crucial for providing theoretical underpinnings to practical knowledge, bridging the gap between on-the-ground experience and academic insight.


For instance, a security professional might find new value in a course on crime prevention, questioning why such academic perspectives had not been integrated into their practice sooner. This illustrates the vital role that academic institutions can play in shaping the security landscape.


The future of security studies is promising but requires a concerted effort to integrate theory with practice. Dedicated research councils, like ASIS International's Research Council, established in 2006, are crucial in this endeavour. They aim to generate new findings that can directly impact the practice of security.


As the discipline continues to evolve, the synergy between academic research and practical application will be paramount in advancing security as a recognised and respected profession. This integration will not only elevate the practice but will also ensure that security management is based on a solid foundation of research and multidisciplinary approaches, ultimately leading to more effective and adaptable security strategies.


As the field of security studies matures, the ongoing collaboration between academia and industry is essential for fostering innovations that address current and emerging threats. By harnessing academic research, the security profession can develop more sophisticated methodologies, enhance risk assessment models, and improve incident response strategies.


One of the critical steps towards advancing the field is enhancing the collaboration between academic researchers and security practitioners. This partnership is vital for translating theoretical insights into practical tools and strategies that can be effectively implemented in real-world scenarios. For example, a university in the United States partnered with local law enforcement agencies to develop predictive policing strategies that integrate criminological theories with real-time data analytics, leading to more targeted and effective crime prevention efforts. These are now being tested by public order response teams in Australia.



Similarly, in the UK, collaborations between universities and private security firms have led to the development of advanced surveillance technologies that incorporate both technical and ethical considerations learned in academic settings. These technologies are then adapted to enhance public safety without compromising privacy rights, demonstrating a balanced approach influenced by robust interdisciplinary research.



To continue the discipline's development, expanding the scope of research to include less traditional but increasingly relevant areas such as cybersecurity, terrorism, and transnational crime is crucial. As these threats become more prevalent, the security studies curriculum must evolve to address them comprehensively. For instance, Australian universities have begun to offer specialised courses in cybersecurity, reflecting the country's commitment to addressing global cyber threats effectively.


A significant impediment to the advancement of security studies has been the lack of high-quality data and comprehensive economic analyses. To address this, there is a need for more robust methodologies that can provide reliable data for studying the economic impacts of security measures. This would involve sophisticated data collection techniques and analytics to better understand the cost-effectiveness of different security strategies.


For example, a research initiative in Canada is focusing on the economic analysis of security technologies deployed at major sporting events. This study aims to assess not only the direct costs and benefits but also the long-term economic impacts on community safety and business activities, providing a more comprehensive understanding of security investments.


Promoting an interdisciplinary approach is essential for the ongoing development of security studies. By drawing on insights from economics, sociology, law, psychology, technology, and management, security studies can become a more integrated discipline that addresses complex security issues from multiple perspectives.


An example of this approach can be seen in a collaborative project between economists, engineers, psychologists, and security experts in Germany, developing crowd control strategies that enhance safety during large public events. By integrating technical solutions with an understanding of human behaviour, these strategies are more effective and humane, showcasing the benefits of a multidisciplinary approach to security challenges.


The path to establishing security studies as a robust and recognised academic discipline is complex but achievable with dedicated efforts to bridge theory and practice. As universities, professional associations, and practitioners continue to collaborate and innovate, the field will not only advance academically but will also provide practical solutions that enhance security and safety worldwide. This evolution is critical as the security landscape continues to change, necessitating a dynamic and responsive approach that can only be achieved through ongoing research and interdisciplinary collaboration.


While I maintain my commitment to finding innovative solutions, I also recognise the importance of adapting to new threats and challenges to effectively protect individuals and communities. The revitalisation of the industry, particularly in providing economic mobility and critical thinking strategies to front-line staff, is my core focus. However, the industry requires advancement and new blood. My three decades of experience and expertise are valuable assets that I am eager to pass on to the next generation of professionals in this field. From the author.


The opinions and statements are those of Sam Wilks and do not necessarily represent whom Sam Consults or contracts to. Sam Wilks is a skilled and experienced Security Consultant with almost 3 decades of expertise in the fields of Real estate, Security, and the hospitality/gaming industry. His knowledge and practical experience have made him a valuable asset to many organizations looking to enhance their security measures and provide a safe and secure environment for their clients and staff.

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